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When the wood is heated to a bag temperature of 300◦C, it will burn if burning in open air. Combustion continues until the end of the combustion process. All the wood will turn to ashes. But if it is burning in closed or confined air conditions The wood will turn into charcoal.
Coal also has a method similar to that of charcoal. Coal is formed from plant remains that accumulate in large basins. And after the sinking of the earth’s crust, those plant remains have been exposed to heat and pressure for millions of years. The heat will cause the remains to be chemically converted into coal, similar to how charcoal is burned in Nowadays, wood is burned in the absence of air or oxygen, so it becomes charcoal.
Coal is a fossil fuel with huge reserves. The coal resources are scattered in countries around the world, making coal a highly stable fuel. This makes coal a cheaper fossil fuel than other fossil fuels.
It can be concluded that the main factors that cause plant remains to convert to coal are
Each type of coal has the following important properties:
1) Anthracite has a calorific value of 6,500 – 8,000 kcal/kg with a moisture content of 5 – 8%.
The ash content is 5 – 12%, the sulfur content is 0.1 – 1.0%.
2) Bituminous has a calorific value of 5,500 – 6,500 kcal/kg with a moisture content of 8 – 15 percent.
The ash content is 1 – 12%, the sulfur content is 0.1 – 1.5%.
3) Sub-bituminous has a calorific value of 4,500 – 5,500 kcal/kg with a moisture content of 24 – 30 percent.
Ash content 1 – 10 percent, sulfur content 0.1 – 1.5 percent.
4) Lignite has a calorific value of 3,000 – 4,000 kcal per kilogram, with a moisture content of 30 – 38 percent.
The ash content is 15 – 20 percent, the sulfur content is 2.0 – 5.0 percent.
constituents of coal
Coal is a type of sedimentary rock composed of four important elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, in addition to a small amount of other elements or substances such as sulfur. Coal with a high carbon content and low other elements when burned produces a lot of heat. It is considered good quality coal.
each type of coal There are different amounts of carbon elements as follows:
1) Wood is composed of 50% carbon by mass, 6% hydrogen by mass, and 43% oxygen by mass.
2) Lignite is composed of 50-70% carbon by mass, 5-6% hydrogen by mass, and 20-30% oxygen by mass.
3) Subbituminous consists of 70-80% by mass carbon, 5-6% by mass hydrogen, and 15-20% oxygen by mass.
4) Bituminous consists of 80 – 90% carbon by mass, 4 – 6% hydrogen by mass, and 10 – 15% oxygen by mass.
5) Anthracite is composed of 90-98% carbon by mass, 2-3% hydrogen by mass, and 2-3% oxygen by mass.
utilization of coal
The utilization of coal is quite widespread from hundreds of years ago to the present. Because there are coal resources scattered around the world. And there are quite a lot. The use of coal was very popular after the Industrial Revolution in England. And even more times when the oil price crisis in 1973 caused the use of coal as a fuel to replace oil more. Both being used as a fuel to generate electricity and in various industries.
using coal as fuel
Coal is an important energy source after petroleum and natural gas. Countries with abundant coal resources are considered countries with high energy security such as Indonesia, Russia, China, Germany and Australia, etc. because they have energy resources. Alternatives to oil and natural gas
The main utilization of coal is to be used as a fuel for generating electricity. And used in various industries such as steel industry, cement, rice cement and other industries, which will be a fuel that has a lower cost than using direct electricity. using coal as fuel In addition to direct combustion Coal can also be converted into liquid or gas fuels. which is the use of coal as a clean fuel to help reduce pollution from the direct use of coal
The advantages of using coal as an energy source are low production costs and large quantities. will cause toxic gasses from the burning of coal causing acid rain and global warming But now there is a technology called clean coal. which reduces pollution problems
The importance of coal energy
Coal is an important source of energy from the past to the present. the coal industry including exploration Production and use have been continuously developed. Especially in countries that are leaders in the industrial economy such as the United States, Japan and countries in Europe. As for Thailand, even though there are more than 2,000 million tons of coal reserves, most of them are of low grade coal. From lignite to sub-bituminous as well as the bad image of the environmental impact of the Mae Moh power plant in the past. Therefore, the use of coal as fuel is not large compared to other technologies.
In the future, the use of coal is expected to increase. Because it is a cheap fuel and has a large reserve compared to other fuels. However, the use of coal for energy production must be used in conjunction with clean coal technology. To eliminate toxic substances released in the production and use of coal.
There are large reserves of coal compared to crude oil and natural gas, so if there is an appropriate method of use, it can be used for at least 150 years when compared to the amount of crude oil and natural gas. which will expire in 40 years