The construction company must to understand how to building foundation reinforcement . Preventing soil erosion and shallow foundations
To build a house, what a home builder company บริษัทรับสร้างบ้าน is often given priority is the foundation If the foundation is good, the stability will be better attached to the frame of the house.
In general, for home builders, home builders must have a lot of knowledge about foundations.
1. Reinforcement of building foundations
Reinforcing the foundation of the building is Additional construction to strengthen the old foundation or connecting the depth of the root foundation
- Making temporary support columns to improve old foundations, such as strengthening or deepening. This can be done by inserting special beams to temporarily hold the wall supported by hydraulic jacks.
- Another method of foundation reinforcement is part by part By starting with digging a hole deeper than the original foundation to the level that will be the new foundation. Then dig into the dots. in some parts of the area where the foundation will be reinforced and then began to build or pour a new part of the foundation. Do this one section at a time until all the foundations are complete.
- Another option to strengthen the foundation is Reconnecting the old foundation with a new deep foundation by means of drilling new piles or placing the Kesong chimney on both sides of the old foundation and removing the old foundation. as well as creating a new needle to replace
Once there is an understanding of building foundation reinforcement, home builders รับสร้างบ้าน must focus on general safety, a common problem faced by land collapse from mining. The methods for preventing soil erosion from mining are as follows:
If the construction site is large enough to support the slope side of the pit or enough to make a step on the side of the hole It does not need a structure to prevent soil erosion. But if the area is insufficient or the hole is drilled with a depth that causes the side slope of the hole to exceed the soil stabilization angle Construction may require laying of piles. to prevent soil erosion until the actual structure is completed
- Sheet pile is a type of structure that prevents side soil erosion. It is made up of various materials such as wood, steel or precast concrete panels. Pile piles will be driven into the ground vertically, arranged in a horizontal line and so on. Sheet by sheet is a wall. To hold the soil and prevent water from seeping into the dug hole. Sometimes piles may be left in the soil as part of the building’s underground structure.
- The back tether serves as the same support as the front strut (CSI 31 51 00), but is placed behind it so that it does not interfere with the excavation site. The back tying is made by inserting steel wire or rebar into the pre-drilled hole to pass through the piles. Go through the side soil to find rocks, clay layers, or anchors that are strong enough to hold them in place. Then a method of injecting prestressed concrete is applied at the back. (post-tensioned) The steel wire is pulled by a hydraulic tensioner. Then pressed with grout into the pressure.
- Drilling Walls (CSI 31 56 00) are retaining walls made up of trench drilling into the soil. to look like piles Most of these types of walls are made in cases where they want to be left as a permanent underground structure. The trench must not be too long. Then add thick bentonite lime water to prevent the soil inside the hole from erosion. The reinforcement is then lowered and concrete is poured into the trench with a submersible device. so that the concrete gradually to replace bentonite cement
- Preventing water from entering the well. This prevents groundwater from causing the soil next to the pit to collapse. By lowering the water level to the soil only the holes drilled into the surface and deep enough beyond the underground level. Then suck the water out using a pump.
- An “I” shaped steel pin is used to hammer the ground. In excavation work, “H” cross-section steel may be used for retaining walls. Made of wood or prestressed concrete in sheets. brought together to protect the soil next to The pit collapsed due to digging.
- Pile piles, “I”-shaped steel piles and retaining walls. It is supported by support legs at the other end on the axis.
Shallow foundations are usually in the form of flat foundations. to spread the weight into the soil under the foundation to have a wide enough area to distribute the weight that will not exceed the load capacity of the soil in that area
- Distance d for masonry walls.
- Distance d for concrete walls.
- Critical cross-section for shear forces
- Compressive strength
- d is the effective depth.
- Tensile side
- Concrete with a curing time of 28 days, compressive strength 2,500 psi (17 kPa).
- Longitudinal reinforcement to bear the stretch and shrinkage caused by the wall temperature for the abutment.
- Tensile strength rebar due to the bending moment at the bottom of the foundation. when the width spreads on each side of the base More than half the thickness of the wall or stanchion
- At least 6″ (150) above the reinforcing steel.
- At least 3″ (75) for gap distance between steel and concrete surface. to prevent the reinforcing steel from being corroded.
Where the foundation of a building is small or weighing less than 2,000 Ib/ft (29 kN/m), it is placed on a solid, non-clay layer such as gravel or compacted sand. The shape of the foundation can be as follows.
- The thickness of the concrete foundation wall (T) is at least 8″ (205).
- Width spread on each side of the base = ½ T.
- T is the thickness of the base.
- 2T is the width of the base.
For areas where the weather is so cold that the upper surface water near the air freezes. When the water freezes The volume of water will increase more than when it is in liquid state. Therefore, it will cause the soil to bulge because the water between the gaps in the solid soil increases the overall volume. Therefore, to reduce this effect, the foundation should be built. It is below the line where the water level has become ice.
- The ice level line is The average depth from the surface of the soil at this point is initially frozen. or during which the snow can infiltrate
- 12″ (305)
- To reduce the subsidence, base and