In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. A circle can be circumscribed around a parallelogram if the four vertices of the parallelogram lie on the circumference of the circle. In this article, we will prove that a parallelogram circumscribing a circle is always a rhombus.

To begin our proof, let’s consider a parallelogram ABCD circumscribed by a circle O, as shown below:

Since the opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel, the angles opposite those sides are equal. Let’s call the angles formed by the intersection of adjacent sides of the parallelogram α and β, as shown below:

We know that the sum of the angles in a quadrilateral is 360 degrees. Therefore, the sum of the angles α and β must be equal to 180 degrees. This can be represented by the following equation:

α + β = 180°

We also know that a tangent line drawn from a point outside a circle intersects the circle at a right angle. Therefore, the angles formed between the tangent line and the radii drawn to the points of tangency are congruent. Let’s call these angles γ, as shown below:

Now let’s consider the angles formed by the radii drawn from the center of the circle to the points of tangency on each side of the parallelogram. These angles are labeled θ in the diagram below:

Since the angles γ are congruent, and the angles θ are vertical angles, we can conclude that θ is also congruent to γ. Therefore, we can represent this relationship using the following equation:

θ = γ

Now let’s consider the angles formed by the radii drawn from the center of the circle to the four vertices of the parallelogram, as shown below:

Since the opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent, we can conclude that the angles formed by the radii drawn from the center of the circle to opposite vertices of the parallelogram are also congruent. Let’s call these angles φ, as shown below:

We now have all the information we need to prove that a parallelogram circumscribing a circle is always a rhombus.

First, we know that the opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal in length. Therefore, we can represent the length of one side of the parallelogram as s.

Second, we know that the distance from the center of the circle to one side of the parallelogram is equal to the radius of the circle. Therefore, we can represent this distance as r.

Now let’s consider the diagonals of the parallelogram. Since the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, we can represent the length of one diagonal as 2r, and the length of the other diagonal as 2s.

Using the Law of Cosines, we can represent the length of each diagonal in terms of s, r, and the angles α and β. The Law of Cosines states that for any triangle ABC, where c is the length of the side opposite angle C, we have:

c^2 = a^2 + b^2 – 2ab cos(C)

Applying this formula to our parallelogram, we get:

(2r)^2 = s^2 + s^2 – 2ss cos(α) (2s)^2 = r^2 + r^2 – 2rr cos(β)

Simplifying these equations yields:

4r^2 = 2s^2 – 2ss cos(α) 4s^2 = 2r^2 – 2rr cos(β)

Now let’s substitute our equation for θ, which we know is equal to γ:

4r^2 = 2s^2 – 2ss cos(α) 4s^2 = 2r^2 – 2rr cos(θ)

Substituting θ for γ and using the equation θ = γ, we get:

4r^2 = 2s^2 – 2ss cos(α) 4s^2 = 2r^2 – 2rr cos(γ)

Simplifying further, we get:

2r^2 + 2s^2 = 2ss cos(α) + 2rr cos(γ)

We can now use our equations for α and γ in terms of θ to get:

2r^2 + 2s^2 = 2ss cos(180°-θ) + 2rr cos(θ)

Simplifying this equation yields:

2r^2 + 2s^2 =