Relevant points of focus can be broken down into four main areas, as outlined by Robert M. Nideffer in The Inner Athlete
Broad and external
Broad and external points of focus are all about assessing a situation. An example is a quarterback dropping back to pass and scanning the field. This is both broad (he’s looking at the whole field) and external (he’s looking outside of himself at what’s happening around him). Other examples: a golfer scanning the fairway off the tee, a volleyball player looking at the opposing team’s setup, or a batter looking at the positions of the fielders.
Broad and internal
Broad and internal focus is about coming up with all the pieces for a solid game plan. Having a broad and internal focus means you think about certain areas you need to improve in order to reach top athletic performance, such as your fitness, skill, or mental training. An example is a diver assessing her mental skills in competition. This is both broad (all her mental abilities when it comes to diving) and internal (they’re things going on within herself). Other examples: a baseball pitcher formulating his game plan, a runner planning how she’ll attack the course, or a lacrosse goalie assessing and evaluating his levels of focus in competition.
Narrow and external
: Narrow and external points of focus are outside of yourself, but smaller in size. An example is a softball player tracking the ball coming toward the plate. This is both narrow (the ball is a small object) and external (it’s coming toward her from the mound). Other examples: a lacrosse goalie tracking the ball, a golfer addressing the ball, or a rifle shooter zeroing in on the target.